EVERY crime have the specific characteristics. Some expert who study of the crime makes a classification or the typology of the crime based on that point.
Siegel, for example, it use the characteristics for distinguish the crime form. That characteristics indicator involve the physical injury of others, abuse the other ownership rights, violations of the laws and regulation and the utilization of the technology for the crime.
From these indicator, Siegel distinguishes the crime to be the interpersonal violence, the political crime and the terrorism, the crime against property, the crime against or by the company, the white collar crime and crime against the environment, the crime against public order, the sexual crime and the drug abuse – narcotics and the crime in the new millennium: the cyber crime and the organized crime between the countries.
This understanding of the classification of this crime become a foothold when the social control policies made and proportional crime countermeasures. But in the real fact in the daily people life and the government tend to over react, especially for the interpersonal violence crime and the crime against property which more popular as a conventional crime.
The fear of the crime, the security investment by the society, including of the society demand of police performance, it tend to emerge or be motivated by the occurrence of conventional crimes. This is suspected due to the perception which formed in the society and government, which is less precise in the terms of the distinguishing and interpreting the conventional crime and unconventional crime.
The Collective Responsibility
This inaccurate perception as conveyed by Siegel, it was changed through the press conference in the hope the media publicize the security problems being faced by the society and convey a number of solution, including regarding the public services which available. Through the media, it is hoped the society positive perception formed of the police, crime and fear of crime
Straighten up the public perception regarding the crime becomes the foundations for the mobilizing and straighten up the collective responsibility. Therefore, as Scott said, the society can recognize the problem on hand. The policing society activity also easier to built up.
Through this policing society activity the equation of perception regarding the security disturbance and the order between the police and the society faster to be achieved. The result as noted Kappeler and Gaines, increasing the life quality and the environment condition.
The Damage Power of Unconventional Crime
In addition to the conventional crime, the unconventional crime is also often used as the indicator to assess the security of an area of a city. The Safe Cities Index 2015 published by The Economist Intelligence Unit, ranks the Jakarta as the least secure place in the Asia Pacific region. This index use the digital security indicator, health insurance (healthy security) and infrastructure safety.
The unconventional crime is more harmful than the conventional crime. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) data as conveyed by Benson said, In 2006 the total loss caused by the conventional crime reached 17,6 billion US dollars, while the losses caused by the unconventional crime reached 300 billion US dollars.
It is indeed not easy to quantify financial losses due to unconventional crimes. But seeing some cases that successfully revealed by the Directorate of Criminal Investigation (Directorate of Special Criminal Investigation) of the Jakarta Police since May 2016 can be described, the total losses of financial bigger caused by unconventional crime than conventional crime.
The financial losses arising due to imported textile from China which haven’t yet completed the customs clearance obligation, have reached billions of rupiah . In another cases, the transaction via fake credit card which reached the amount more than Rp. 1,085 billion, also corruption alleged of Rp 12 billion by East Jakarta landscape gardening Sub-Department. Also emagine, the farmer’s losses due to the circulation of 46 tons fertilizer that doesn’t fit the label, quality standard and it doesn’t meet the SNI. This fertilizer is made from the mountain limestone mixed with red and black dyes.
As same as with conventional crime, unconventional crime also can induce the physical injury. The physical injury in the unconventional crimes arises among others due to the violations of occupational health and safety rules, the production and distribution of unsafe consumer goods, as well as pollution and environmental damage. The difference with conventional crime, physical injury caused by unconventional crime is difficult to recognize and can occur massively.
Benson estimates that thousands of workers have died and hundreds of thousands of others have been injured, disabled, or have suffered illnesses as a result of ignoring the rules regarding work health and safety. It is can’t to be estimated the number of consumers who received the physical injury or even death due to unsafe consumer goods.
As an illustration, since May 2016 the Ditreskrimsus Polda Metro Jaya revealed a number of cases of circulation of counterfeit drugs, the fake vaccines, the drugs that aren’t meet the standards, the expired drugs, the cosmetics and supplement drugs of various types and brands that suspected without the distribution permit from the Indonesian National Drug and Drug Control Agency . The perpetrators has been do it for years and earns hundreds of millions of rupiah every month.
The other unconventional crime that was also revealed by the Ditreskrimsus was the spread of hatred through social media that culminate to the horizontal conflicts and the riots. As a one of example is the riots during the Persija match, and the conflict in Tanjung Balai. Uniquely, the perpetrators who involved stand far from the crime scene. In addition, one of the perpetrators is a minors.
Benson argues, unconventional crimes undermine the belief in justice and legitimacy of the government, create distrust and weaken morality and public confidence in business practices. This crime damages the trading system, and healthy competition which in the end damaging the business world of one country.
In Benson opinion, unconventional crime can become the basis for a broader redefinition of crime. Because, often the impact of non-conventional crime doesn’t occur in conventional crime.