THEY are the hatred spreader from the sky, from cyberspace. These criminals want to divide the people, take advantage of the murky situation, later on, seize the power, and they rob the secure sense.
The hatred crime generally started by hatred speech. The perpetrators use the degrading language, attack based on the social status, race, religion, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation or disability. Wall and Bell describe the hatred speech as a victimization to the marginalized groups through verbal or oral attacks.
Some hatred crime cases lead to the verbal harassment, sexual harassment, threats up to the symbolic attacks, both of the psychological and emotional. O’Brien and Yar distinguish four groups of cases in the hatred crime, that is, Physical injury even until death, psychological injury and emotional, sexuality injury and financial losses.
The attack and destruction of two temples and five temples in Tanjung Balai, asahan, North Sumatra, which occurred due to the provocative exclamations through the social media in 2016, the riots of the Persija Jakarta supporters as well as the beating to Brigadier Hanafi at Pintu VII Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, Senayan, Central Jakarta in 2016, the persecution of 47 media account which accused has insulting religion or the scholar throughout 2017. As noted by Southeast Asia Freedom of Expression Network.
Meanwhile, the 2017 DKI Jakarta Governor election ended with disclose and arrest of the Saracen Group, and the Muslim Army Cyber Group (MCA). This shows that organized hate groups have emerged.
Ronczkowski has characterizes hatred speech groups as follows:
The group structure is loose at the local level but very structured internationally. In the case of the Cyber Army Muslim Group, networks were identified in Taiwan and South Korea.
The majority of members of this group, said Ronczkowski, they are under the 30 years old, but in Indonesia they are different. The suspects spread the issue of kidnapping the clerics, four of the seven suspects, 32-year-old male. Suspects in the Cyber Army Muslim Group, five of 11 suspects, male aged 31-40 years.
Ronczkowski said, the leader of this hatred speech group tends projecting the image of the mainstream. Its members are trained in using devices such as cable television and computers to promote its rhetoric. From the evidence that was confiscated, a perpetrator at least has two smartphones and active in the social media. They use viruses to attack computer systems from individuals or groups with different views.
What’s the interesting is, fellow members don’t know each other as personally, never even met physically. They are only bound by issues. In Indonesia the issues that utilized were ethnic, racial, religious and intergroup issues, as well as the rise of the Indonesian Communist Party. They believed that there was a struggle for power between Muslims and non-Muslims. Regional or state leaders must be Muslim, Ronczkowski said.
Digital Social Media Progress
Some of the advantages of the social media compared to conventional media as conveyed by Taprial and Kanwar include:
More accessible. Social media is more accessible because it does not require a special abilities to use it. It’s easy to connect one individual with another as part of a community. Anyone can talk about anything. They can initiate conversations with anyone.
Communication speed. Social media content can be accessed by everyone in its network, and quickly published. A person communicates without external factors that can influence what he is conveying. The response is spontaneous. The transmitter and respondent can dialogue like in the real world.
Interactive. Social Media encourages two-way communication. The users interact with one another, discuss, and share the opinions.
Longevity – Volatilit. Social media content is long lasting, even be stand forever. The content can also be updated and changed at any time by the communicator.
Rich Facilities. According to Taprial and Kanwar, the internet offers unlimited access to all types of content. Social media facilities share any information to anyone.
The advantages of this Social Media later on misused by online haters. It started from static websites, streaming audio and video, to social networking sites. The information technology (IT) usage for hatred speech began to spread in 1985.
IT that provides privacy and this anonymity allows the online haters to openly campaign for their views without resistance, without the consequences compared to using other media. With the IT, writes Wolf, online haters victimize minorities, inspire courage and mobilize individuals, and recruit followers.
Social Media, said Marsh and Melille, allows them to get an immediate response, whether in the form of pictures or comments that demean; strengthen racial narcissism, while promoting difference; opening up merchandizing opportunities, in order to build an economic power base; and download and collect racist speeches material.
The state, through its legislation, has actually anticipated the hatred spreader from this “sky”. Policing of them has been strengthened by Law Number 19 of 2016 concerning Amendments to Law Number 11 of 2008 concerning Information and Electronic Transactions (ITE). Some material actions which are prohibited in the ITU Law, that is as follows:
1. Illegal content is related to problem of decency, gambling, defamation or defamation, threatening and extortion (Article 27, Article 28, and Article 29 of the Law on ITE).
2. Illegal access (Article 30 of the Law on ITE).
3. Illegal interception (Article 31 of the Law on ITE).
4. Interference with data (data interference, Article 32 of the Law on ITE).
5. Disruption of the system (system interference, Article 33 of the Law on ITE).
6. Misuse of tools and devices (misuse of device, Article 34 of the Law on ITE).
Unfortunately, the real facts show that the police are still having trouble to cracking down on them due to, as Kshetri wrote:
1. Fail to compensate for developing technology.
2. Lack of experience regarding crime in the cyber world.
3. Lack of collaboration with industry.
4. Lack of collaboration and cooperation at the global level.
The police, as stated by Akhgar, also still face several obstacles related to the lack of up to date guidelines, lack of proper training; and lack of funding.
Yar admitted that the internet has unique features that shape crime in the cyberspace. These features make it difficult to deal with crime when approached by an established criminal justice system.
These factors, according to Adler:
01. It is very difficult to monitor the Internet. The resources needed to deal with this type of crime are inadequate.
02. There is no public protest against the computer crime, due to the public more interested in violent crime.
03. Finally, many police feel don’t need to deal with computer crime, but assist people and arrest the criminals.
Harnish also confirmed the cyber crime is very complicated. It is difficult for the police to handle it with the traditional way or community policing.
By seeing this explanation, we agree with Rossmo that when a crime cannot be explained, escaping the offender will bring the criminal justice system into a bad situation. The misunderstanding in determining suspects will often occur.
Face up to this “attack from the sky”, now the police in many countries are developing more cyber forensics in the investigation process, arrest, and examination. Cyber forensic become the main domain for policing, including online undercover and cyber patrol. In this way the police can neutralize the perpetrators before they appear injured. In addition to being cheaper, the cost of preventing it is indeed simpler than after cases have emerged, as stated by experts.
However, this prevention aspect by the police is often seen as a mirror of a repressive regime. This argument was developed with the definition regarding the hatred speech. As Wolf wrote, policing is seen as only raising the potential for abuse of the power.
The question: Those who think that policing as a mirror of a repressive regime, are they ready to face the risk of “attacks from the sky” that will ravage not only to their communities, but also their families?