CRIME is impossible to suppress to zero. Late on policing efforts are directed to control crime so that it remains within the limits that can be tolerated by the community.
The Gangster Hunter Team in West Jakarta is one of the solutions to suppress crime in this case, gangsterism. However these efforts are also not without obstacles.
Kshetri (2010) mentions there are at least four condition which faced by the police officer, as follows:
1. The failure to compensate the developing technology.
2. Lack of the knowledge and experience regarding the crime evolvement.
3. Lack of cooperation with the industrial society.
4. Lack of cooperation at the global level.
Kirby (2013) distinguish the internal and external factor as a cause the police failure, failed to carry out the crime control.
The internal factors as follows:
– Late modernity and the contemporary policing environment – keeping pace with change. The police unable to adjust the organization and the procedures to the politic change, the social, the economy, the technology, the environment and law that occur quickly.
– Partnership and plural policing. The police unable to develop the corporate link with the others parties that also have an interest to controlling the crime. It is including cooperation with the commercial agents which appear and paid by the society to controlling the crime.
– The role of the police and how they are measured. The police failed to develop their roles in line with the development needs.
– The emergence of stakeholders: Politics, the media and other influences. The police failed to establish and fulfill the work plans due to political, media and expert pressure as a control stakeholder group.
– The operational environment and the conscious opponent. The police failed to understand the environment characteristics including the individuals as a locus and a subject of surgery
The internal factors as follows:
– The police organizational culture and the use of discretion. The conducive police culture to the evolvement of corruption, the unethical behavior, unprofessional behavior and inability to take decision.
– The police leader. Leadership.
– Choosing the correct intervention: Knowledge of ‘what works’, inability to choose the intervention or the most appropriate policing measures to control crime.
– The police practitioner – competence, knowledge and motivation. The competition, knowledge and motivation from the police.
This condition has an impact on the weak social control of crime. One of them is reflected in the increasing number of cases and the number of cases that have not been handled. Also, loss of trust in the police, including the incurring economic and social costs (Chiabi, 2010).
The failure in the social control, according to Benson (2009), there is also potential to damaging the confidence to the fairness and government legitimacy. Undermine the morality and public trust to the effort, the business and the economy.
The role of criminology for the police
The policing effort ultimately inseparable from the criminology which first appeared in Europe in the late 1700s. Its appearance is in line with the development of 18th century criminal law. At that time the discussion of criminology emerged through the writings of philosophers, doctors, physicists, sociologists, and social scientists (Hagan, 2013).
Most of the theory was originally rooted in a biological framework. But the explanations within the biological framework have been abandoned by modern criminology and replaced by social science approaches.
As a terminology, criminology was first mentioned by Raffaele Garofalo (1851-1934) in 1885. Paul Topinard (1830-1911) used the terminology of criminology for the first time in 1887 (Adler2009).
Hoefnagels (1973) wrote and reminded that many definitions of criminology. In social science, the definition has only one value and is relative (Hoefnagels 1973). To prove it, Hoefnagels formulated the definition of criminology: “The study of the social phenomena of crime, its causes, and the steps directed to deal with it.”
According to Hoefnagels (1973), the above definition has weaknesses, one of which does not mention the perpetrators.
The definition of criminology from Howard Jones, although criticized by Hoefnagels (1973), it is interesting because it calls the concept of social phenomena of a crime (social phenomenon of crime). This means there is a recognition that the causes of crime can be found in society. Hoefnagels (1973) called it criminal sociology and became a branch of criminology.
One definition of criminology that is which many referenced was found in a book entitled Criminology by Edwin H. Sutherland (1883 – 1950) and Donald R. Cressey (1919 – 1987). They wrote the criminology as a collection of knowledge regarding the delinquency and crime as social phenomena. This includes the scope of the lawmaking process, violations of the law, and reactions to violations of the law.
The criminology regarding the crime was strongly influenced by the thought of David Emile Durkheim (1858 – 1917). He saw the humans as a product from the society and a small description from the world that become their place. All the explanation regarding the humans found in the society. It is including the explanation regarding the crime which committed by the humans (Lauden, 1958).
For Durkheim, the crime still always exist in the society, both of the poor and prosperous people. The crime is the result from the social interaction. The influence of Durkheim clearly seen in the theories regarding the social disorganization and social structure theory and anomie from Robert K Merton (Barlow and Kauzlarich, 2010).
In Durkheim’s view, the crime is a social fact. It isn’t abnormalities or individual deviation, but the fact as a result from the condition in society. The crime is the normal characteristic from the social live. It is the reflection from the shape and the social development.
In the Durkheim observation, level, pattern and the crime form have a relation with the social integration level. Even Durkheim said that the crime have a function in the society, as follows:
– From the crime, humans and society can learn regarding the difference between good and bad.
– The crime can encourage or maintain the group solidarity.
-The crime can assist the society to innovating or carry out toward social transformation.
– The crime can reduce the pressure or suspense which felt by the individual in society.
The themes in Durkheim’s work are very influential in writings on criminology, including:
1. The thinking about sociological positivism, and the argument that sociology can provide a master-discourse.
2. Social solidarity as the glue of society, and the division between mechanical and organic solidarity.
3. The use of law as an index of social solidarity.
4. Normality of crime in every society.
5. The concept of anomy or a condition of normlessness.
6. The idea of the importance of building moral individualism as a way to resolve utilitarianism as a basis for social solidarity in modern society.
Summer (2004) also said that social science approaches is very relevant in the crime explanating and the deviation rationally, even until this 20th century. Its consideration is the historical events and processes which contracted socially, as a response of the social conditions. At once, it is as a social critics that reflection of the emotion, ideology and the value of ruling groups.
The historical events and processes referred to include the following:
1. The development of urban areas and migration which resulted in the emergence of delinquency and organized crime.
2. Ultimately the development of multi-national companies influence the law and make the principle of equality before the law just as a mockery.
3. Poverty, especially what happens in developing countries, which is causing the perpetration of crime as a choice for survival.
4. Mass murder in the name of a free society under the auspices of the law.
5. The emergence of corporatist welfare states that are designed as a solution for crime.
6. The emergence of deviant subcultures and delinquency that actually occur in a prosperous society.
7. The emergence of discussion about the social value of violence, as a result the development of violence and the terror movement.
8. The emergence of challenges over capitalist cultural values.
9. The development of feminism.
10. Increased crime rates in most democratic societies in
11. Contradictions between capitalist and communist societies.
12. The emergence of economic blocs such as the EU, NAFTA and OAU, which ultimately leads to the party in power to define crime and irregularities.
13. The development of a global labor market that blurs the difference between crime and rights, deviations, and cultural diversity.
14. Massive environmental damage as a reflection of the weakness of social regulation in the capitalist economy.
The Criminology Theory
Before entering the theory realm in the criminology, a little bit mentioned regarding the paradigm as a part of knowledge science development phase. Khun (1996) called the paradigm as a milestone of the scientific achievement which provides the model of problem and solution.
Shortly, the paradigm can be defined as a comprehensive constellation of trust, values and techniques possessed by a scientific community in looking at things (phenomena). Simply stated, Barlow and Kauzlarich (2010) wrote that actually there are two big paradigms in the criminology, namely the Positivist paradigm and the Social constructionist paradigm.
Even though they acknowledging that there are another paradigm such as Marxis, postmodernist and feminist, Barlow and Kauzlarich (2010) argue that basically the paradigm is multidimensional, as a paradigm which combines the elements that actually contained in the positivist paradigm and social constructionist paradigm.
The positivist paradigm argue that the crime can be explained through the scientific method. The crime is considered as an objective condition or a social fact which can analyzed and understood as an independent phenomena, regardless of their different forms.
The theories in the positivist paradigm basically examine regarding the real causes of the crime and control or reduction the crime. In contrast, the social constructionist paradigm does not consider the objective existence of the crime. This paradigm emphasized the conceptualizations regarding the crime, law and the difference criminal justice. The crime, law and the criminal justice which conceptualized by the social actor. This paradigm later on called as a social constructionist.
The criminologist who embrace this paradigm construct the theory to explore the social actor which defining the crime, labeling of behavior and the label consequences for individuals and groups. The criminology intend to construct the body of knowledge regarding the crime, later on underlies the development in criminology.
Simply the theory can defined as a part of an explanation. An abstract explanation which explains whether or not an event occurred (Vito and Holmes, 1994& Siegel, 2012).
The criminology theory can be interpreted as a explaining of the relationship between a matter and the crime occurrence. The theory have a function to compiling the knowledge which has been existing regarding a subject into a coherent framework.
This theory also provided the direction in developing the research. The criminology used the theory for explaining clearly the causes of the crime occurrence. The final result is expected to improve the quality of life and reduce the losses caused by crime.
For create the ideal police, Wong (2012) formulated the big framework, as follows:
1. Making the police more rational (i.e., scientific, rule-bound, and results-oriented). Making the police organization more rational, underlie the works with the scientific method, the activities bound by the rules and oriented to the result.
2. Making police personnel more qualified (i.e., educated, trained, and specialized). Making police personnel more qualified through the educated, trained and specialized.
3. Making police services more professional (i.e., responsive, responsible, and competent).
4. Making police conduct more accountable (i.e., more open and better supervised).
In Wong’s (2012) view, there are several steps that can be taken to achieve this, namely:
-Modernization of the concept of law enforcement. The social transformation and the economic often causes the transformation in the law enforcement. The policy maker in the police body must continue to pay attention to these changes.
–Data-driven policing. It making the data and information as a basic of the policing. There are no longer using the experience, intuition, and coercive nature.
-Integration of strike, prevention, and control of crime strategies. These are have to integrate the prevention and law enforcement.
–Standardization of police practices. The Policing must be based on standardized, institutionalized and rational procedures.
-Standardization of expenditures and equipment. The effective and efficient policing must be supported by adequate and rational budgets and equipment.
-Regularization of police establishment. Members of the police must be well-organized in ideology, recruitment, supervision and accountability.
-Scientific utility assessment. The periodically evaluation of the policing has been carried on. The evaluation based on the scientific measure, through the comprehensive research.
Combat the Gangsterism
West Jakarta Metro Resort Police, at one time, faced the several crime issues. The most standing out is drug related crimes, gangsterism and many the dangerous point of conventional crime (street crime). In the other hand Bhayangkara Trustees of Community Security and Order (Bhabinkamtibmas) West Jakarta Metro Resort Police which spearheading the control of crime in the region, is in a weak position.
The law enforcement was carried out with the deterrent effect orientation and crime control as an explained Siegel (2012) relevant to do. Accordingly formed the West Jakarta Metro Resort Police Gangster Hunter Team in conducting policing of gangsterism.
The gangsterism is no longer seen as the individual entity. As mentioned by Abadinsky (2010), they seen as the organized crime so that can be charged with the articles with the threat of heavier penalties and money laundering articles.
The gangsterism in West Jakarta reached point that unsettled the societies. Moreover, some high-class gangster plus ferocious society organizations are entrenched in the legal territory of West Jakarta Metro Resort Police.
Gangster don’t only cause public unrest. Inter the groups of thugs or society organizations are also often involved in clashes that pose their own threats. Especially in the fighting for vacant land that requires security. The areas prone to gansterism include Kalideres, Cengkareng, and Kebon Jeruk.
The members of the Gangster Hunter Team are strictly selected. They were the specifically trained in Mobile Brigade Command Headquarters (Mako Brimob). This is the first time a team like this has been formed in the police force throughout Indonesia.
Specifically, this elite team in charge to exposing the gangsterism and the other organized crime. In the several month, the Gangster Hunter Team evidently able to reduce number of the gangsterism.
However, West Java Metro Resort Police preserved the existence of Gangster Hunter Team. In turn, after the condition quieter, the police officer involved the societies to participate for maintain the security and order of public. The police also provide a place for complaints from the public.
Part of the community
Regarding the policing of the drug related crimes or the drugs crime such as in Ambon Village (Kompleks Permata), there is developing the problem – oriented policing (POP). The POP conceived by Herman Goldstein, john E Eck and William Spelman, which framed in environmental criminology.
West Jakarta Metro Resort Police Bhayangkara Trustees of Community Security and Order (Bhabinkamtibmas) as a community policing officer (CPOs), by providing by providing security analyst capabilities. The POP model was developed in the Crime Prevention System (Si Gahtan) program to realize safe settlements from conventional crime in West Jakarta.
The different problems are faced by the Metro Jaya Special Criminal Investigation Directorate. In observation, policing as a form of reaction to crime, tends to be over-invested. Especially for crimes such as interpersonal violence and property crime, or conventional crimes. As if this ignores the forms of organizational crimes and occupational crimes as explained by Kauzlarich and Rothe (2014).
From the criminology literature especially the critical criminology, there is a tendency that the definition of the crime, condemnation and the crime control which formulated by the country. As a consequence, the country seen as the main actor in fighting the crime, compared with bringing up the awareness that honorable people and also the country can be as a perpetrator.
They able to induce unlimited injury, include the financial loss, physical injury, and social harms. This awareness later on bring up the idea to change the society perception regarding the unconventional crime.
This was carried out through the cooperation with the mass media. The final goal is for empowering the societies for collaborate with the police as a system for crime control as initiated by Kappeler and Gaines (2011).
The different problems were also faced by the Directorate of Cyber Crime Criminal Investigation Agency of the Republic of Indonesia State Police during the 2017 Jakarta Governor’s election and the 2018 Simultaneous Local Election which took place on 27 June 2018. The arrests of the Saracens Group and the Cyber Army Muslim Group (MCA), for example, were not free from criticism.
The Criminal Investigation Agency took several steps, in accordance with the concept of human rights and criminology cyber. Firstly, performing the precaution. The principle is to increasing the awareness of the consequences and stop the hatred crime before that happens.
Secondly, as initiated by McDevitt and Wolff (2007) rehabilitation or prevent the perpetrator making the digital crime in the future. In the practice, this matter carried out by the several steps such as supervise the virtual community.
The Directorate of Certain Crimes of the Republic of Indonesia State Criminal Investigation Agency supports the enforcement of environmental justice, ecological events, in addition to species justice. Environmental justice sees environmental rights as an extension of human rights.
In the practice when the law enforcement causes the conflicts with the societies, it even triggers public distrust of the police, this is encourages a change in the policing orientation. Especially in defining the perpetrator from the green crimes and the policing effort that applied to these perpetrator.
In the end it can be concluded that the policing without a foundation or theoretical framework will not be able to control crime, even produce contradictory effects.
The criminology has initiated the principles to modernize the concept of law enforcement, making data as a base for policing, integrating various approaches as a basic guideline in conducting policing. A theoretical framework that can be used in policing can be found in criminology.
This discourse is based on experience and scientific background in the form of literature. Therefore very open the criticism of this idea, as well as being expected to trigger research for its proof. Hopefully this discourse will contribute and the color to the police and policing.