THE 2020 simultaneous regional election (Pilkada) aren’t the first simultaneous regional election (Pilkada). Indonesia through the elections committee (KPU) has conducted the simultaneous regional election at June, 27th 2018, to involves 171 regions, consists of 17 province, 115 districts, and 39 cities.
Since the socialization stages was began from November 2019, the social media need to obtain the special attention until the D-day 2020 simultaneous regional election 2020 day. It also has been the attention focus in the 2018 simultaneous regional election. Because, the technological and the information developments give the significant contribution to communication changes and media. One of them is the social media development.
The definition of social media is very diverse. Taprial and Kanwar (2011) explain, the social media is media which allows someone to be socialite or become socialite in sharing the content, news, photo, video or the like with others by online. In the fact, 90 percent of all the online users use the social media (Medsos).
The largest contribution discussion of social media comes from Boyd and Ellison (2007) in their creation entitled “Social Network Sites: Definition, History and Scholarship”. They bring up the terminology of social network sites which subsequently became the social media (Medsos) terminology pioneer.
One of the social media (Medsos) uniqueness is its the ability in facilitated the user for communicate, interact and sharing the information. Taprial and Kanwar (2012) mentioned some the excellence of social media (Medsos) compared with the conventional media, namely accessibility, the speed to delivering the content, two way communication or even multichannel. The content can be long lasting time, until the unlimited coverage.
This excellence like this often used for committing crime. The social media (Medsos) abuse was also contributed for emerge the hoax. Basically, hoax is the fake word or sentence (information or news), which composed with the logic structure and the thought, cunningly packaged, so later on, it was considered and can be received as true or original words or sentences (information or news). The data refer to committed hoax and the hatred speech can be observed from the noted data in the Directorate of Cyber Crime.
The elections oversight agency (Bawaslu) also stated, the social media (Medsos) become a most crucial point in the 2018 simultaneous regional election. According to the Coordinator of the Prevention and Socialization Division of elections oversight agency (Bawaslu), Mochamad Afifudin as quoted detik.com, around 70 percent provinces which participated the regional election into the high category level usage of the social media.
The social media (Medsos) attacks in district and city level are equally high. Afifudin explained, the identity politic occurred in all regions with the different degrees. As much as 25 percent, the districts and cities are categorized as high levels of vulnerability. Two districts which the most vulnerable in 2018 regional election are Tabalong district, East Kalimantan and Konawe district, Southeast Sulawesi.
This was influenced by the rise of the tribal and region’s son issue. The population mobilization was also risky due to these two districts are a relatively rich mining areas.
A year before the D-Day of simultaneous regional election. The elections oversight agency (Bawaslu) together with elections committee, the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology (Kemenkominfo) and the Indonesian Police intensifying the cyber patrol. Especially for supervise the social media (Medsos). This noise in DKI 2017 regional election become ones of basic of enhancement cyber patrol.
The cyber patrol focused for supervise the social media (Medsos) most vulnerable due to the massive level, that is Facebook. The Minister of Communication and Information (Menkominfo) at that time, Rudiantara, also involved the nine platform of social media (Medsos) was participated in content patrol. They among others Google Indonesia, Facebook Indonesia, Twitter Indonesia, Telegram Indonesia and Line Indonesia.
Rudiantara asked the account that breaking up the rules related to the regulation of regional election so that passed down or take-down. If the platform organizer was not immediately demoted. The Minister of Communication and Information (Menkominfo) will forced them to executing it.
As the independent regional election organizer, the elections oversight agency and elections committee have the authority in supervising the social media (Medsos). “There are no reason for the platform organizer to implement the regional election organizer recommendation”. Rudiantara said.
The scope of cyberspace patrols includes negative charged content, the fake news (hoax), defamation and hatred speech. The Ministry of the Interior stated, the 2018 simultaneous regional election safe and smooth relatively. The evaluation will used for program 2020 regional election.
Ones of the indicator of the success is the lack of the cyber disruption especially concerns issue of ethnicity, religion, race and intergroup in other name SARA. The chaos in DKI 2017 regional election not repeated especially in social media (Medsos).
Specifically, Indonesian Police (Polri) formed the Nusantara task force (Satgas) for prevent the fake news until the hatred speech motived of SARA. This task force (Satgas) specifically in charge for cool the regional election atmosphere or as a cooler.
There was a lot of implemented likes an education, literacy in the internet and in the real world. The Nusantara task force (Satgas) also was designed to execute the cyber patrol to provocative accounts.
The Nusantara task force at Indonesian Police (Polri) up to the Region Police (Polda) until resort police (Polres). Every the regional election happening, the task force (Satgas) cooperated and coordinated with the elections organizer, candidates, success team, public figure, cleric etc.
The criminal cyber is very slippery. Even though the anonymity more guaranteed, they often take over someone else’s accounts for committed a crime.
In the abstract level, this was known as stealth concept or invisible. The perpetrators hidden first the identity use the other people identity. Or, in disguise with the variety of technique or the method, later on, committed further crime (Newman, 2009). They was discredit the original account holder. See on the Pattern diagram Account Usage processed by 2017 Dirtipidsiber.
The Space Transition Theory explained that the human always bring all the behavior when move from the physical space to cyber space or otherwise (Jaishankar, 2011). Somebody with the criminal behavior which depressed in the physical space have the tendency for committed the crime in cyber.
The identity flexibility, anonymity and lack of the deterrent effect in the cyberspace become a tool for the perpetrators to commit the crime more free. The evil behavior in cyberspace make it possible can move to physical space. Evil behavior in physical space may also be transferred to the cyberspace. The time lag in moving the space becomes a gap for the perpetrators to escape.
The criminals who don’t know each other tend to unite, together in the cyberspace to later on, commit the crimes in the physical space.
The relationship in the physical world tend to unite the perpetrator in the committing the crimes in cyberspace. Someone who comes from the closed societies or the closed community is more possible to commit the crimes in cyberspace than someone who comes from the open community.
According to the Space Transition Theory, the crime in cyberspace got the name the old wine in new bottles. The internet is arena for committed the conventional crime such as the hatred crime, theft and violence. Basically the crime in cyberspace same as the terrestrial crime, only committed through the new media (Aas, 2007).
The other causes are not many citizen of the net (netizens) who understand the rules and norms in the interacting such as the politeness and modesty, besides the rule of law with the consequences of severe physical punishment.
The digital discrepancy or the digital divide also become a problem. The distance among the party which have the unlimited access in cyberspace and the party which have the limited access, it is the symptoms from the bigger problems and complex.
Eastern Indonesia is still lagging due to weakness the digital infrastructure. The culture and digital content isn’t always reflect the needs and interests of diverse populations (Servon, 2002). The fulfillment of the rights of access of the information disclosure has not yet fully facilitated by state. The state policies in the implementing infrastructure and information technology application still weak.
Remembering the crucial usage of social media (Medsos) especially in the campaign, elections committee (KPU) restrict count of account that used for the campaign for all the candidates. The elections committee (KPU) established the maximum limit of five account and it have to registered to the elections committee (KPU). As quoted CNN Indonesia, the chairman of elections committee (KPU) Arief Budiman explained that one social media (Medos) limited to one account. So, the one account on Facebook, one account on Instagram etc. The elections committee (KPU) then, publishes the official account name belongs to the region head candidate to the societies.
The elections committee (KPU) has issued KPU Regulation Number 4 of 2017 concerning Campaigns. For the examples, they don’t personally attacking the other region head candidate, opposing the 1945 Constitution and Pancasila, both in the field campaign and cyber campaign.
“If there were the news outside the official account which has registered to elections committee (KPU), the societies is expected to don’t believe right away”, Arief said as quoted CNN Indonesia.
Center of Digital Society (CfDS) Gajah Mada University research the debate in cyberspace on 2018 simultaneous regional election. The result, outside the Facebook, Twitter, apparently widely used by stowaway for spread the opinion.
Twitter become the buzzer arena. It used the account with unclear identity, they sent the controversial news to directing the public opinion.
From the 4.605 tweets studied, two categories of buzzer tweets and original tweets were found. As much as 57 percent tweets has been uploaded into the buzzer category, the remaining 43 percent the original tweets or the real opinion from the account with clear identity.
In part of content which aired buzzer get into the incorrect news category or hoax, with tend of the hatred speech. Automatically the buzzer domination will born the hoax news and hatred speech. Therefore, CfDS suggested the digital literacy be carried out for opened the awareness of the account owner regarding the ethics and content truth until the simultaneous regional election avoid from the cybercrime.