THE environmental Crimes or Green Crimes is a shape of unconventional crime. This crime effect to the ecosystems destruction, the hampered of ecosystem function and the habitat structure, the climate and weather changes, as well as changes in way of life – from social and cultural aspects, and extinction.
Crook and Pakulski, Tranter, Curson and Clark grouped the impact of this crime into three categories as shown in the table below.
Sumber: White, 2008.
As a result of these two things, the forests and the conservation areas, damaged, even destroyed, while white issues refer to the damage caused by life in the laboratory environment, the genetic engineering and the impact of new technology.
Hall in his writing identifying the environment crime based on the health, economic, social and culture and security impact caused.
Which the classified of the environment crime including the illegal logging, the illegal gold mining, the illegal planting, the wildlife trading and fishing with damaging the natural environment.
There occurred the illegal logging which resulted 219 million cubic meters wood in Indonesia from 1991 until 2014. It’s mean, there was damaging the forest on the 2,3 million hectares size land or 32 times from the size of Singapore. The country losses reached 6,5 – 9 billion US dollar.
Meanwhile, mostly the illegal gold mining uses mercury. Mercury is dangerous for human health, The haphazard use of these chemicals also causes the river and the sea pollution.
On the mount Batok, Maluku Baru Island, the mercury and cyanide waste from illegal gold mining caused polluted rivers and Kayely Bay. On the data 2014, as written by Kompas.id said, the mercury waste was found in shrimp, crabs, shellfish and fish which consumed by the local citizen.
Tempo.co.id, writes, cases of the illegal plantations involving the oil palm plantations, it’s became the cause of 659 agrarian conflicts in 2017.
Regarding wildlife trade, the Ministry of Environment and Forestry said that the velocity of money in illegal wildlife trading on the black market estimated to reach US $ 7.8 – 19 billion annually. The state losses as written by wwf.or.id (2018), reached more than 9 trillion per year.
Meanwhile, fishing activity in a destructive way the nature resulted reduce the biodiversity, animals and plants. In the territorial waters of North Maluku, West Papua, Maluku, NTT and NTB as validnews. Id (2018) wrote, fishing by bombing or using potassium still often done by fishermen there. Unfortunately, this environment crime impact still considered as a natural disaster so that there no one can be held for the responsibility.
Green (2005) argues, the existence natural disasters victims caused by state negligence. The states with their power put their citizen deliberately in the dangerous situations. The state fails to identify or even ignore the potential risks and dangers faced by citizens. The state excludes the proportional budget allocations as a guarantee of the security life of their citizens. Corruption and the existence of organized crime suspected as part of the state’s mistreatment of their citizens.
Between the information resources, and the information
The main obstacle in the policing against environmental crimes as conveyed by Gottschalk is the low ability of the police to identify events as an environmental crimes. Because, the police sometimes unable to consider information resources and information which exists and their have not been able to develop a network with individuals in the key area.
Until now, the police are still dependent on the expert witnesses in finding the environmental criminal elements. Sometimes, the police cannot keep confidential information until it can be published for the first time. On the other hand, the issue of investigation deadlines sometimes unmanaged, or, “unreasonable”.
Therefore, Gottschalk said, the police should be:
A. Developing the value configuration, which emphasizes insights and knowledge about economics, business, and finance, it not only a crime issue.
B. Developing the information management strategies, which make police intelligence as an important element, or what is known as an intelligence-led policing (see Ratcliffe, 2008).
C. Developing a knowledge management strategy.
D. Developing information systems support, especially in conducting investigations and examinations.
Remembering the obstacle, limitations, and citizen demands to the police, the police have to do the reform to themselves. One of developing an appropriate policing model.
Clamp and Paterson argued, the right policing model was developed by referring to aspects of the target, the approachment, the process, role of the police, and the public involvement.
Refer to the context of constraints, limitations, and demands, the policing model that can be developed is restorative policing.
Sumber: Clamp and Paterson, 2017.
Within the framework of this restorative policing model:
1. All the policing efforts must aim to:
A. Emergence the general deterrence, by implementing a multi-door approach using several laws and regulations in parallel, a corporate criminal liability approach, separating the responsibilities between individuals and corporations, as well as the application of Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 8 of 2010 concerning Prevention and Eradication of Money Laundering.
B. Reducing and recovering losses suffered by society and the country.
C. Recognition or appreciation from the international community.
D. Improving the system or business process in business so that it can be prevent further injuries in the future.
2. Conducted by opening a dialogue by involving the stakeholders intended inresponse to the occurrence of crime and developing a plan of activities in the future.
3. Carry out the meetings and always warn to against committing crimes while providing solutions and solving problems.
4. Police officers are required to be able to play a role and have interpersonal skills, communication skills, and the problem solving.
5. The society and the community are expected to be actively involved in understanding, resolving, and overcoming the consequences of the occurrence of the crime, as well as being involved in deciding attitudes and behavior in facing crime.